CREAM (Centre for Research and Education in Arts and Media), University of Westminster, is a world-leading centre and pioneer in practice-based, critical, theoretical and historical research in the broad areas of art, creative and interdisciplinary practice. 

CREAM runs a dynamic programme of exhibitions, screenings  and talks throughout the year. CREAM researchers take part in wide ranging academic and public engagement activities, reflecting the diversity and international scope of our research culture. For upcoming programmes visit events.

Doctoral Programme

The CREAM doctoral programme hosts a thriving international community of researchers exploring issues in art and design, film, photography, moving image, ceramics, cultural studies, art and technology/science, and music.


Uriel Orlow, Photo © BAK, Florian Spring

Uriel Orlow has been awarded the Prix Meret Oppenheim prize. Each year the Swiss Grand Award for Art / Prix Meret Oppenheim honours achievements in the fields of art, architecture and critique, publishing, exhibition with three laureate awards. Orlow has received this year’s prize alongside art historian and mediator, Stanislaus von Moos, and the collective Parity Group. The award ceremony will take place on 12 June 2023 as part of the “Swiss Art Awards” exhibition in Basel, Switzerland. 

Orlow is Reader in Experimental Media at the University of Westminster. His practice is research-based, process-oriented, and often in dialogue with other disciplines, and often unfolds over extensive periods of time. His projects engage with residues of colonialism, spatial manifestations of memory, social and ecological justice, blind spots in representation and plants as political actors. In Theatrum Botanicum (2015–2018) and other multi-part bodies of work created in recent years, Orlow explores the role of plants as witnesses to European colonial history and climate change, and as bearers of memory. Taking plants as a point of departure, he maps out more-than-human entanglements and seeks other forms of resistance. Earlier works, such as The Benin Project (2007/2008) or Unmade Film (2012/2013), address the looting of cultural property under colonialism, the need for restitution, and the material and psychological dimensions of places marked by historical trauma.  

Orlow’s multi-media installations focus on specific locations, micro-histories and forms of haunting. In his numerous exhibitions, he connects installation with photography, film, drawing and sound, in order to bring different image-regimes and narrative modes into correspondence. This fragmentation of media reflects the complexity and multi-layered content of his work and invites visitors to move through his exhibitions as active participants. Besides exhibitions, he realises performative works, including lecture performances, and collaborates with local communities to realise gardens in London, Lubumbashi and Kathmandu. His projects evolve out of careful processes of listening and paying attention to often overlooked events on the margins of history and current affairs.

Uriel Orlow, Photo © BAK, Florian Spring

A conversation between Orlow, Andrea Thal and Giovanni Carmine will be available in the forthcoming Prix Meret Oppenheim 2023 publication. The publication will be distributed as part of the July/August 2023 Kunstbulletin. Copies can be ordered via the Swiss Art Awards website


Ukrit Sa-nguanhai, Trip After (2022) Digital Video, Sound 10 min 14 sec Commissioned by CIRCUIT with the assistance of Creative New Zealand

CREAM PhD researcher Ukrit Sa-nguanhai’s Trip After (2022) is part of the 2023 Berlin International Film Festival. His short film was selected for the Forum Expanded strand of the Berlinale, which showcases works by filmmakers who contribute to expanding our understanding of what films can be. 

Trip After is based on Ukrit’s research into itinerant outdoor film screenings for propaganda purposes in northeast Thailand during the Cold War. In those decades, mobile film units sponsored by the US Information Service travelled the region to show films as part of the war against communism. Ukrit’s film draws on an archive of field reports written by US officials who travelled with the film units. His experimental travelogue revisits a village which had been used as the location for shooting a US-funded propaganda film, and it re-enacts a screening of that film in that very place. 

Ukrit explains how Trip After connects with his practice PhD project: “The film is part of my initial research for my project, ‘Itinerant propaganda films and the rural Isan audience in the Cold War era in Thailand.’  Making the film doubled up as a field research trip, allowing me to scout the locations and chat briefly with the locals. The film is also an exercise on how I can use historical archives to investigate this local history during the Cold War era, doing so through moving images. Trip After has a spontaneous nature, alongside archival research its process also involved my improvised responses to the location and the daily life events encountered during my field trip.”

To accompany the screening of Trip After, the Arsenal – Institute for Film and Video Art, which programmes Berlinale’s Forum Expanded strand, has made an informative exhibition page with background materials on the film’s research process.  

Ukrit’s film was made as part of an artist cinema commissioning project by CIRCUIT Artist Moving Image Aotearoa New Zealand.    


Panel Discussion, Virtual Photography Symposium, University of Westminster, 28th June, 2022, photo: Elizabeth Theobald  

Dr Paula Gortázar, photography researcher and lecturer, reports on last year’s Virtual Photography Symposium and what this new area of technology could mean for the future of photography education. 

Last June, Professor David Bate and I organized a Virtual Photography Symposium at the University of Westminster. This was one of the first academic events of its kind, which brought together industry experts, artists and educators from different countries in Europe and North America, to consider the future of photography within the new, virtual spaces where still images operate. Some of the speakers included Brandon Harper, Augmented Reality Designer for HoloLens at Microsoft (USA); Anders Printz, Photography Manager at IKEA (Sweden); and Petri Levälahti, gaming photographer for EA Dice (Sweden), among others.  

From the discussions, it soon became evident that the operational frameworks for the production and distribution of photographs in contemporary computerized societies were shifting at a speed that neither academic research, nor photography education, were fully addressing. At this point, it is critical to clarify, firstly, what kind of photographic practices does the term Virtual Photography refer to, and most importantly, what new technological relations should be considered to fully understand the potential of the photographic medium within the emerging, virtual realm.    

If one googles the term, it seems that the current, popular notion of virtual photography refers to either in-game photography practices – screen captures taken by videogame users – or to photographs taken within virtual reality applications. A broader, more inclusive conception was attributed to the term at the symposium. Coming from a variety of backgrounds (arts, education, computing and advertising), the symposium participants pointed to a number of areas that might be included under the umbrella of Virtual Photography, and which are essential to study in order to fully understand the role photography plays in contemporary societies. Such interdisciplinary knowledge would range from a basic understanding of automated forms of image production, computer vision and data capture; to creative coding, 3D scanning, computer generated imaging (CGI); or the multiple applications of photography within extended reality environments. Overall, however, what became evident throughout our discussions was that, just as digital technologies would evolve in ways that remain difficult to anticipate, Virtual Photography practices will continue to expand in unpredictable forms.     

Ziggy Kolker, ‘Flat’, from England, The Game, 2008

As pointed out by seminar speaker Professor Sophie Triantaphillidou (UoW), however, while it is clear that photographers should be aware of the above areas, it would be impossible to teach photography students all those subjects in depth. As she suggested, the role of educators should be to expose students – rather than teach them –  the various applications of virtual photography, and provide them with the necessary tools to deepen their knowledge independently. This approach would enable students to own their learning process, encouraging them to design it according to their individual needs and motivations. After all, these areas of study are under constant development. Graduates of the twentieth-first century can expect to work in a variety of professions, across diverse sectors throughout their lives, most of which will not even exist by the time they finish University. Their ability to adapt to new technologies and embrace different ways of working and making will be essential to their career success. Educating students to design effective learning processes is thus probably one of the most important life skills Universities can teach today.   

Keiken X Gabriel Massan, Omoiyari, 2022. Installation view at The Photographers’ Gallery, London. Photo: Ollie Harrop

There is also already a clear growing demand for Virtual Photography skills in specific sectors. As explained for example by Ziggy Kolker, artist and Photography Lecturer at Plymouth University, the demand for Computer Generated Imaging skills in the advertising industry has been thriving for the last few years. As she recounted, however, her experience of teaching CGI raised some interesting challenges. First year photography students can be reluctant to produce computational images in the total absence of a camera, but once they start using the software and explore its endless creative possibilities, many embrace the medium and end up using it throughout their Final Projects. At the end, Kolker explained, students understand that CGI skills are not only applicable to commercial practices but that the software offers multiple opportunities for visual artists to expand their practice in innovative ways. This was also the argument offered by another symposium participant, Arieh Frosh, Digital Producer at The Photographers’ Gallery in London, who shared some of the latest projects the Gallery had been working on. All of the examples shared include Virtual Photography practices in one form or another, such as  their recent exhibition Omoiyari, by the Japanese Keiken X Gabriel Massan, which was their first attempt to produce a show entirely in Augmented Reality.   

Petri Levälahti, Paradise, Grand Theft Auto V (Petri Levalahti/Rockstar Games), nd 

A popular speaker with students at the event was Petri Levälahti, gaming photographer for video game developer EA Dice. Petri, who flew from Stockholm to share his practice, explained how his love for videogames got him started in Virtual Photography. While in the early days, gamers could only take direct screenshots of the game scene, he said, some developers started to incorporate virtual cameras as part of the gamer’s gear. After some time, the functions of these cameras became highly sophisticated, turning in-game photography into a genre of its own. Petri noted that in this context gamers’ passion to capture game scenes through still photographs could eventually turn into a real job. After years producing virtual photographs in his own time, Petri is now working as an in-house photographer for EA Dice, taking pictures to market their new releases. As he explained, there is clearly a growing demand for gamers with an understanding of photography conventions to join creative teams in the videogame industry. If photography students are playing games in their free time, this career path might be an ideal fit.  

Likewise, Anders Printz, Photography Manager at IKEA, told us how the regular equipment used by his team members had changed considerably during the last decade, as it included all sorts of 3D scanning devices and drones that are significantly different from the usual photography gear. During a very informative talk about the state of commercial photography, he invited students to experiment with various scanning applications available for iPhone, in order to lessen the fear of big technological terms like ‘Photogrammetry’, and the apparent complexities of computational image outputs.   

Paula Gortázar, National Geographic, Oculus App, 2022 

A great discussion was also provided by Brandon Harper, Augmented Reality Designer for HoloLens at Microsoft, who explained the diverse applications of photography within extended reality environments. Rather than the ‘death of photography’ – as some theoreticians of the medium had already predicted – the latest developments of digital technologies, and the proliferation of augmented and virtual reality platforms, have created new possibilities for image makers, who may now explore image capture processes within 360° environments (See Andrew Dewdney, Forget Photography, 2021). 

Beyond the material production of virtual images, the study of Virtual Photography from a theoretical perspective also opens up a wide range of professional opportunities in the tech industries. The representational function of photography is now being relegated by its new algorithmic nature. The main purpose of the photograph is not so much to visually document reality, but to act as a data generating vehicle that achieves its mission through connectivity and external control. The combination of image literacy skills with an understanding of computer vision and data capture may therefore provide photography graduates with rare and valuable expertise. From User Experience Design (UX), to online marketing and data analysis, students could expand their career prospects in ways they might have never anticipated.  

It is evident that the production and distribution of photographs has never been greater than today. The ability of the photographic image to generate revenue has grown at a fascinating speed during the last two decades, reaching profit levels that would have been impossible to imagine before the turn of the century. Photography graduates are poised to excel in the fluid professional landscape of the coming decades. Of course, photography education should go beyond mere practical training. The university sector has a responsibility to enlighten students in the risks of such growth, its social and political effects, and to produce critical thinkers able to contest the abuses of the system. A holistic study of Virtual Photography, from its computational roots, to its practical applications and contextual grounding, is likely to produce a new generation of photography graduates that are technically savvy, yet socially responsible, and which may thus contribute to the continuity of photography’s expansion in the virtual realm from a humanistic and ethical perspective.  

It is in this spirit that photography academics at Westminster School of Art and CREAM are developing our curricula and research agendas. We aim to contribute to the progress of photographic theory and practice in ways that are yet to be devised.  

Dr. Paula Gortázar has been awarded a Pilot Grant by Westminster School of Arts  to develop her ongoing research on Virtual Photography. During the last six months, she has presented her findings at various international conferences in Europe and USA, including the Photographies Conference ´Boundaries and Borders´ in Texas (September, 2022), Confoco International Photography Congress in Madrid (October, 2022) and the International Conference of Photography and Theory, ´Expanded Visualities: Photography and Emerging Technologies’, in Nicosia, Cyprus (November, 2022).